Get to Know More About the Body’s Metabolism

The body needs energy so that every organ of the body functions properly. Energy is produced through the body’s metabolic processes by changing the food and drinks consumed. With the energy, you can undergo daily activities, such as walking, working, and exercising.

The body’s metabolism is a chemical process that occurs in the cells of the body to convert the food and drinks you consume into energy. Energy is needed by the body so that the body’s cells and tissues stay healthy, grow and develop, and their functions run well.

Some body functions that are affected by metabolic processes are breathing, digesting food, circulating blood, repairing and renewing cells, controlling body temperature, triggering muscle contraction, eliminating waste through urine and feces, and maintaining brain and nerve function.
How it works Metabolism

The body’s metabolism works through two processes, namely catabolism and anabolism, which take place simultaneously. The following is the explanation:
Catabolism

Catabolism is the process of processing and solving nutrients and burning calories from food for later use by the body as energy. Through metabolic processes, the protein content in food and drinks is converted to amino acids, fat is converted to fatty acids, and carbohydrates are converted to simple sugars (glucose).

Furthermore, the body will use sugar, amino acids, and fatty acids as energy sources when needed. These substances are absorbed into the blood and distributed to body cells.
Anabolism

Anabolism is the process of renewing and repairing body cells through burning calories using the energy produced by the body through the process of catabolism.

If you consume more calories from food or drinks, the body will store the excess energy produced as fat tissue.
Things That Affect Body Metabolism

The metabolic rate or how many calories are burned by the body to produce energy generally varies from person to person. This is influenced by the following factors:

1. Body size and composition

People who have bigger and more muscular bodies are able to burn more energy, even when resting. This is because muscle tissue is more active in the metabolic process than fat tissue.

2. Gender

Male bodies usually burn more energy than women. This is because men often have more muscle tissue and less body fat when compared to women.

3. Age

As we get older, the amount of muscle tends to decrease but the amount of fat increases. This can slow down the metabolic process or burning calories to produce energy.

4. Genetic

Genetic or hereditary factors can affect the growth and size of muscle tissue. This will later be able to influence the burning of energy or metabolism of one’s body.

5. Body temperature

Metabolism will naturally increase when body temperature decreases (hypothermia) or when the body is cold. It aims to increase body temperature to return to normal, so that the body’s organs can function properly.

6. Caffeine intake or stimulants

Metabolism can be increased if you consume drinks that contain stimulants such as caffeine. This substance is naturally found in coffee and tea. In addition, the body’s metabolism can also be increased when taking drugs that are stimulant, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine.

7. Hormones

The hormone that functions to regulate the body’s metabolism is the thyroid hormone. Therefore, disruption of the production or action of thyroid hormone can increase or decrease the body’s metabolism.

8. Pregnancy

Metabolism in a pregnant woman’s body will increase to support the process of growth and development of fetal organs and tissues. The metabolic process will usually begin to increase when the pregnancy reaches the age of 15 weeks until entering the third trimester.

9. Consumption of food and drinks

Lack of eating food and drinks can slow down the body’s metabolism. Conversely, your metabolism can increase if you eat a lot or drink, especially if the food or drink consumed contains a lot of calories and nutrients.

10. Level of activity

Various types of exercise and physical activity can trigger the body to burn more energy, especially if the exercise is done regularly.
Disorders of the Body’s Metabolism

Healthy body metabolism takes place in a balanced manner, neither too high nor too low. However, metabolic processes can sometimes experience interference.

The following are some types of diseases or conditions that can make the body’s metabolism disturbed:

Thyroid disease

The thyroid gland produces the hormone thyroxine which plays a role in determining how fast or slow metabolic chemical reactions occur in a person’s body.

Underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) will slow down metabolism because the amount of the hormone thyroxine in the body is inadequate. Meanwhile, an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) will release the hormone thyroxine in greater amounts so that the body’s metabolic processes become faster.

Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a group of health problems that occur simultaneously. This condition makes the body’s metabolic processes become irregular.

People affected by metabolic syndrome will experience a set of health problems that include high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, as well as elevated levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. In addition, metabolic syndrome sufferers are also more at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease and stroke.

Congenital metabolic disorders

In certain cases, the body’s metabolic disorders can also be caused by congenital abnormalities, one of which is fructose intolerance.

This condition is a congenital metabolic disorder that makes the sufferer’s body unable to process or break down fructose, which is a type of sugar that can be found in fruits, vegetables, and honey.

Other types of congenital disorders that can disrupt the body’s metabolism are galactosemia or the body’s inability to convert galactose carbohydrates into glucose, and phenylketonuria (PKU) or the body’s inability to convert the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine.

Metabolism is a natural process that occurs in the body. With the body’s metabolism, you can carry out daily activities smoothly. You can even increase your metabolism to burn excess fat tissue so that your body weight becomes more ideal.

Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepines are a class of sedatives or sedatives that are used to help in calming the mind and relaxing muscles. Benzodiazepines are used as a treatment in conditions, such as:

Anxiety disorders
Panic attack
Sedative before surgery
Insomnia
Tense muscles (muscle spasm)
Convulsions
Alcohol dependency syndrome

This drug works by affecting the central nervous system, which will make the brain nerves become less sensitive to stimuli, causing a calming effect.

The following are the types of drugs that are classified as benzodiazepines:

Alprazolam
Chlordiazepoxide
Clobazam
Clonazepam
Diazepam
Estazolam
Lorazepam
Midazolam

Warning:

Pregnant women, nursing mothers, or women who have plans to become pregnant are advised to consult a doctor first before using benzodiazepine drugs.
Be careful when using benzodiazepines if you have kidney problems, liver problems, depression or suicidal ideation, chronic (chronic) respiratory tract disorders, myasthenia gravis, sleep apnea, glaucoma, or have a history of alcoholism and drug abuse.
Avoid using benzodiazepines together with CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole or itraconazole.
Discuss again with your doctor about the benefits and risks if the drug is used for a long time, because it can cause drug dependence.
Tell your doctor if you are using other medicines, including supplements and herbal products.
If an allergic reaction or overdose occurs, see a doctor immediately.

Side Effects of Benzodiazepines

Drug reactions in each person is different. Possible side effects after using benzodiazepine drugs:

Sleepy
Dizzy
Confused
Limp
Memory loss
Impaired body balance
Akathisia (body movement disorder)
Convulsions
Nausea
Throw up
Constipation
Dry mouth
Weight gain
Appetite is difficult to control
Decreased sexual appetite
Depressed respiratory system
Blood pressure drops dramatically
The desire to commit suicide.

Types, Trademarks, and Doses of Benzodiazepines

The following are the types of drugs that belong to the benzodiazepine group. For a detailed explanation of side effects, warnings, or interactions, please look at Medication A-Z.
Alprazolam

Alprazolam trademarks: Alprazolam 0.5, Alviz, Apazol, Atarax, Calmet, Frixitas, Opizolam, Xanax

Form of medicine: Tablet

As a short-term treatment for anxiety disorders
Adult: 250-500 mcg, 3 times a day. If needed, the dose can be increased every 3-4 days to reach 3-4 mg per day. The duration of treatment should not exceed 8-12 weeks.
Elderly: 250 mcg, 2-3 times a day. The dosage can be increased if needed.

Panic attack
Adult (ordinary tablet): Initial dose is 0.5 mg, 3 times a day. The dose can be increased gradually to 1 mg every 3-4 days. In severe conditions, the maximum dose is 10 mg per day.
Adult (extended release tablets): 0.5-1 mg, 1 time a day. The dose can be increased every 3-4 days, a maximum of 3-6 mg per day.
Elderly: The initial dose is 250 mcg, 2-3 times a day. The dosage can be increased gradually if needed.

 

Chlordiazepoxide

Chlordiazepoxide trademarks: Analsik, Braxidin, Cliad, Clixid, Librax, Melidox, Sanmag

Form of medicine: Tablet

Anxiety disorders
Adult: 30 mg per day, which is divided into several doses. For serious anxiety disorders, the maximum dose is 100 mg per day.

Muscle spasm
Adults: 10-30 mg per day, divided into several doses.

Insomnia
Adults: 10-30 mg per day, taken before going to bed at night.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
Adults: 25-100 mg per day, given as long as necessary. The maximum dose is 300 mg per day

Clobazam

Clobazam trademarks: Anxibloc, Asabium, Clobazam, Clofritis, Frisium, Proclozam

Form of medicine: Tablet

Severe anxiety disorder
Adult: The initial dose is 20-30 mg per day, once a day taken at night or divided into several doses, for 2-4 weeks. The maximum dose is 60 mg per day.
Elderly: 10-20 mg per day.

Supportive therapy for epilepsy
Adults: 20-30 mg per day. The dose can be increased if needed, a maximum of 60 mg per day.
Children over 6 years old: The initial dose is 5 mg per day, a maximum of 60 mg.
Elderly: The initial dose is 5 mg per day. The dose can be increased gradually according to the development of the condition.

Clonazepam

Clonazepam trademarks: Clonazepam, Riklona 2, Rivotril

Form of medicine: Tablet

Panic attack
Adults: The initial dose is 0.25 mg, 2 times a day. The dose can be increased after 3 days to 1-4 mg per day.

Epilepsy
Adult: Initial dose is 1 mg, which is given every night. The dose can be increased after 2-4 weeks, a maximum of 20 mg per day.
Children aged 10 years and under or weight less than 31 kg: 0.01-0.05 mg / kgBB per day, which is divided into 2-3 doses. The dose can be increased to 0.25-0.5 after 3 days, until the seizures can be controlled.
Elderly: 0.5 mg, which is consumed at night, for 4 days.

Diazepam

Diazepam trademarks: Diazepam, Neurindo, Neurodial, Neuroval, Opineuron, Potential, Proneuron, Stesolid, Valdimex, Valisanbe

Form of medicine: Tablet

Severe anxiety disorder
Children and adults: 2 mg, 3 times a day, a maximum of 30 mg per day.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Insomnia
Adult: 5-15 mg, taken before going to bed at night.
Children: 1-2.5 mg, 3-4 times a day. The dosage can be increased if needed.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Muscle spasm
Adults: 2-15 mg per day, divided into several doses. The dose can be increased to 60 mg per day if accompanied by other conditions, such as cerebral palsy.
Children: 2-40 mg per day, divided into several doses.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Convulsions
Adults: 2-60 mg per day, divided into several doses.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Sedatives before surgery
Adults: 5-20 mg.
Children: 2-10 mg.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
Adults: 5-20 mg, which can be given again after 2-4 hours if needed.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Medication form: Injections through blood vessels (intravenous / IV)

Sedatives before surgery
Children and adults: 100-200 mcg / kgBW.
Elderly: Not more than half the dose above.

Form of the drug: Injections, can be IV or injections into muscles (intramuscular / IM)

Severe anxiety disorder
Adults: A maximum of 10 mg once injection, which can be re-injected after 4 hours.
Elderly: Not more than half the dose above.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
Adults: 10-20 mg.
Elderly: Not more than half the dose above.

Muscle spasm
Adult: 10 mg, which can be re-injected after 4 hours.
Children: 0.04-0.3 mg / kg, every 2-4 hours, until the dose reaches 0.6 mg / kg for 8 hours.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Convulsions
Adult: 5-10 mg by IV injection, and repeated every 10-15 minutes until the dose reaches 30 mg.
Infants aged 30 days – children aged 5 years: 0.1-0.5 mg by IV injection, can be injected again every 2-5 minutes until the dose reaches 5-10 mg.
Children over 5 years: 1 mg repeated every 2-5 minutes, maximum dose of 10 mg per day.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Form of the drug: Preparations through the rectum (suppositories)

Severe anxiety disorders and Muscle spasm
Adult: 500 mcg / kg, can be repeated after 12 hours if needed.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Convulsions
Adult: 200-500 mcg / kgBB, which can be used again after 4-12 hours if needed. Maximum dose of 30 mg per day.
Children aged 2-5 years: 500 micrograms / kgBW.
Children aged 6-11 years: 300 mcg / kgBW.
Children 12 years or older: 200 mcg / kgBW.
The above dose is given once again after 4-12 hours if needed.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Estazolam

Estazolam trademarks: Alena, Esilgan

Form of medicine: Tablet

Insomnia
Adults: 1-2 mg, taken before bedtime.
Elderly: 0.5-1 mg, taken before bedtime

Lorazepam

Lorazepam trademarks: Ativan, Lorazepam, Loxipaz, Merlopam, Renaquil

Form of medicine: Tablet

Anxiety disorders
Adults: 1-4 mg per day, divided into several doses, for 2-4 weeks.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose

Insomnia
Adults: 1-2 mg, taken before bedtime.
Elderly: Not more than half the dose above.

Sedatives before surgery
Adults: 2-3 mg, given the night before surgery. Then, follow with 2-4 mg 1-2 hours before surgery.
Children aged 5-13 years: 0.05 mg / kg body weight, given approximately 1 hour before surgery.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose

Midazolam

Midazolam trademarks: Anesfar, Dormicum, Fortanest, Hipnoz, Midazolam-Hameln, Miloz, Sedacum

Form of medicine: Injectable liquid

Sedatives before surgery
Adult: 70-100 mcg / kg, given 20-60 minutes before surgery.
Children aged 1-15 years: 80-200 mcg / kgBW, given 15-30 minutes before surgery.
Elderly: 20-50 mcg / kgBB, given approximately 20-60 minutes before surgery

Sedative during critical conditions
Adult: 0.03-0.3 mg / kg body weight.
Infants less than 6 months old: 60 mcg / kg per hour as continuous infusion. The dose can be reduced after 24 hours to 30 mcg / kg per hour. The maximum duration of treatment is 4 days.
Age 6 months-12 years: 50-200 mcg / kgBB with slow injections, approximately for 3 minutes.

 

Form of the drug: Injections, can be IV or injections into muscles (intramuscular / IM)

Severe anxiety disorder
Adults: A maximum of 10 mg once injection, which can be re-injected after 4 hours.
Elderly: Not more than half the dose above.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
Adults: 10-20 mg.
Elderly: Not more than half the dose above.

Muscle spasm
Adult: 10 mg, which can be re-injected after 4 hours.
Children: 0.04-0.3 mg / kg, every 2-4 hours, until the dose reaches 0.6 mg / kg for 8 hours.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Convulsions
Adult: 5-10 mg by IV injection, and repeated every 10-15 minutes until the dose reaches 30 mg.
Infants aged 30 days – children aged 5 years: 0.1-0.5 mg by IV injection, can be injected again every 2-5 minutes until the dose reaches 5-10 mg.
Children over 5 years: 1 mg repeated every 2-5 minutes, maximum dose of 10 mg per day.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Form of the drug: Preparations through the rectum (suppositories)

Severe anxiety disorders and Muscle spasm
Adult: 500 mcg / kg, can be repeated after 12 hours if needed.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Convulsions
Adult: 200-500 mcg / kgBB, which can be used again after 4-12 hours if needed. Maximum dose of 30 mg per day.
Children aged 2-5 years: 500 micrograms / kgBW.
Children aged 6-11 years: 300 mcg / kgBW.
Children 12 years or older: 200 mcg / kgBW.
The above dose is given once again after 4-12 hours if needed.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose.

Estazolam

Estazolam trademarks: Alena, Esilgan

Form of medicine: Tablet

Insomnia
Adults: 1-2 mg, taken before bedtime.
Elderly: 0.5-1 mg, taken before bedtime

Lorazepam

Lorazepam trademarks: Ativan, Lorazepam, Loxipaz, Merlopam, Renaquil

Form of medicine: Tablet

Anxiety disorders
Adults: 1-4 mg per day, divided into several doses, for 2-4 weeks.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose

Insomnia
Adults: 1-2 mg, taken before bedtime.
Elderly: Not more than half the dose above.

Sedatives before surgery
Adults: 2-3 mg, given the night before surgery. Then, follow with 2-4 mg 1-2 hours before surgery.
Children aged 5-13 years: 0.05 mg / kg body weight, given approximately 1 hour before surgery.
Elderly: Not more than half the adult dose

Midazolam

Midazolam trademarks: Anesfar, Dormicum, Fortanest, Hipnoz, Midazolam-Hameln, Miloz, Sedacum

Form of medicine: Injectable liquid

Sedatives before surgery
Adult: 70-100 mcg / kg, given 20-60 minutes before surgery.
Children aged 1-15 years: 80-200 mcg / kgBW, given 15-30 minutes before surgery.
Elderly: 20-50 mcg / kgBB, given approximately 20-60 minutes before surgery

Sedative during critical conditions
Adult: 0.03-0.3 mg / kg body weight.
Infants less than 6 months old: 60 mcg / kg per hour as continuous infusion. The dose can be reduced after 24 hours to 30 mcg / kg per hour. The maximum duration of treatment is 4 days.
Age 6 months-12 years: 50-200 mcg / kgBB with slow injections, approximately for 3 minutes.